What is relative humidity and how does it affect how I feel outside?

What is relative humidity and how does it affect how I feel outside?

If the air is at 100-percent relative humidity, sweat will not evaporate into the air. As a result, we feel much hotter than the actual temperature when the relative humidity is high.

Humidity is somethi ng we hear about daily in weather reports. Humidity is to blame for that muggy, steam-room feeling you experience on certain summer days.

Humidity can be measured in several ways, but relative humidity is the most common. In order to understand relative humidity, it is helpful to first understand absolute humidity.

Absolute humidity is the mass of water vapor divided by the mass of dry air in a volume of air at a given temperature. The hotter the air is, the more water it can contain.

Relative humidity is the ratio of the current absolute humidity to the highest possible absolute humidity (which depends on the current air temperature). A reading of 100 percent relative humidity means that the air is totally saturated with water vapor and cannot hold any more, creating the possibility of rain. This doesn't mean that the relative humidity must be 100 percent in order for it to rain -- it must be 100 percent where the clouds are forming, but the relative humidity near the ground could be much less.

Humans are very sensitive to humidity, as the skin relies on the air to get rid of moisture. The process of sweating is your body's attempt to keep cool and maintain its current temperature. If the air is at 100-percent relative humidity, sweat will not evaporate into the air. As a result, we feel much hotter than the actual temperature when the relative humidity is high. If the relative humidity is low, we can feel much cooler than the actual temperature because our sweat evaporates easily, cooling us off. For example, if the air temperature is 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius) and the relative humidity is zero percent, the air temperature feels like 69 degrees Fahrenheit (21 C) to our bodies. If the air temperature is 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 C) and the relative humidity is 100 percent, we feel like it's 80 degrees (27 C) out.

People tend to feel most comfortable at a relative humidity of about 45 percent. Humidifiers and dehumidifiers help to keep indoor humidity at a comfortable level.


Author and Nutritionist David Wolfe Discusses Nutritional Myths

Author and Nutritionist David Wolfe Discusses Nutritional Myths
By Kevin Gianni

Kevin: Let's take another turn here and let's talk a little bit about some of the common things that people are experiencing nowadays and maybe if you can just give some suggestions on what they can do to help them out. I know that, to start, we'll start with osteoporosis. A lot of women are concerned about osteoporosis and they're concerned about calcium and taking these calcium pills. You know, what are some of the pros and cons of that?

David: Okay, well the nations that consume the most calcium, the United States, Canada and the Scandinavian countries, have the worse osteoporosis and that's because our theory of mineralization or our theory of nutrition is incorrect.

The general theory is that a hundred years ago they started looking at people's bones. They found out that, oh my god; these bones are made out of calcium. When people don't have enough bone density the thought is, oh they just have to eat more calcium because that's what builds bones.

Calcium does not build bones and that is one of the biggest misconceptions ever and it actually goes to the real core of our problems with science. And that is the human body is a complex biological machine of an unbelievable of mystery.

And there is strong evidence that indicates that if you eat some of the calcium, let's say it's calcium from coral calcium, for example, oyster shell calcium. That it is almost impossible to get that stuff into your bones to increase bone density. The amount of increasing bone density, at best, is 1 or 2%. It is not good enough.

What increases bone density? Well, it turns out it's two other minerals and that is silicon and magnesium. Now, the best natural source of magnesium is cacao and cacao is known to be good for your teeth. In fact, there are chemicals in cacao that kill the organism Streptococci mutans that cause cavities. And, in fact, those extracts of the chocolate are now going to be showing up in toothpaste all over the world.

Kevin: No kidding?

David: That's amazing. That to me is just such a dramatic irony.

Kevin: Wow.

Wolfe: All along chocolate has been good for your teeth. It's the sugar that's been bad but even then, studies have been done on people who eat chocolate even with the sugar and it's been found with a study done in Scandinavia on this.

It's been found that even then that people who eat chocolate have been teeth health than people who don't. To me that's amazing. But let's get on to silicon because this is the mineral that is difficult to get in today's diet. What is silicon? It's a mineral. You get it in the skin of cucumbers. It's in the skin of bell peppers. It's the skin of tomatoes. It's in certain special herbs, which I'm going to name and you can drink this as a tea or take it in supplemental form and you will notice that it helps with your bone density.

And here are the herbs. One of them is called horse tail, horse tail and it's not a horse's tail. It's actually an herb. Another one is nettle. Stinging nettles have been eaten by the druids in the U.K. for thousands of years and it's one of the most important foods to eat if you know how to do it or if you juice it or you can just dry it and make a tea out of it, which is what I'm recommending; horse tail, nettle, oat straw. The oat seed of the oat grass has a little straw around it. It has a little coating. It's the seed capsule. That oat straw is one of the richest sources of silicon. You can buy it in health food stores. You can get in as extracts in health food stores.

You can get it raw and make your own tea out of it. You combine those three together and you want you can add alfalfa, which is also a great source of silicon. You can either make a tea out of that or you can just eat those any way you can find them. And you will find if you do three strong teas of that per day you will start increasing your bone density but how? It's the silicon.

Now, how does silicon increase calcium? I mean that doesn't make sense. It's because our theory of minerals is incorrect. Our atomic theory is incorrect. And that is if you eat silicon rich food your body, through the power of enzymes transmutates it into calcium, turns the silicon into calcium. That was discovered by a great French researcher by the name of Louis Curvan, a Nobel prize nominee, who wrote five books and 5,000 pages of research on just this particular subject; how silicon and calcium are related to each other.

It was very well honored in France and he is very intimately entwined in the science of what's going on in France; but because of the language barrier his research really never made it to the English-speaking nations.

Kevin: Interesting when we're still taking calcium pills from, you know, sea shells and everything.

David: I recommend to god, you know, this is so engrained in our minds about calcium that if you are confused about this, get on the Internet and research exactly whose getting the results of remineralizing their bones and you'll find it's people who are not taking these forms of calcium that are toxic, which is the oyster shell calcium and to some degree even coral calcium.

Kevin: Now, bones are alkaline and doesn't the acidity of meats and sugars - does that eat away at the bone? I mean has that been proven or is that just a theory that I think I have, you know?

David: Well, that's a great question and that's the other side of the equation about osteoporosis. One is we've got to make sure we get the right nutrition to build strong bones. The other side of the equation is we've got to make sure we are doing things that aren't hurting our bones.

Eating lots of sugar is one of the worse things we can do to our overall health of our teeth, which are living bones and to the density of our bones because when we take in lots of sugar our body has to use calcium, it has to pull calcium out of the bones to buffer or neutralize the intense acidity of the sugar.

Calcium is highly alkaline, as you stated. Our bones are alkaline and, therefore, alkaline minerals are used whenever we're exposed to real strong acids. Sugar is a very strong acid. I mean, you know, we used to dissolve the corrosion on our battery terminals of our bus by dumping soda pop onto it because that sugar just dissolves and the phosphoric acid just dissolves all the corrosion right on the battery terminal. I mean you don't' want to be putting that in your body. That's dangerous.

Kevin: Let's get into supplements little bit. And you walk into a health food store and there are literally thousands of them. How do you get through them to find the ones that help with weight loss, and longevity, is really what I think the fountain of youth is all about?

Which ones of those are the best? I mean rhodiola, turmeric, cinnamon. I mean which ones are the ones that people should be focusing on, not necessarily take but should be focusing on?

David: That's such an excellent question. My job is to basically guide people into health food stores and create order out of chaos. There are so many things. Okay, well the most important thing, in my opinion, that you can buy in a health food store in that department is going to be vitamin C.

Kevin: Okay. In what form?

David: Well, there's different forms. Now, I recommend that you start experimenting, moving away from synthetic forms of vitamin C or ascorbic acid, which is still beneficial, still good for you, and moving towards powdered, really high vitamin C plants. For example, you can get acerola cherry. It's a tropical berry that is really high in vitamin C.

It's like 1 or 2% vitamin C and basically what they do is they grow these berries. They dry them and they powder them down and the encapsulate them or put them in a glass jar and sell them in health food stores as vitamin C.

Now, that's a real great way to get lots of vitamin C natural with all the cofactors. Vitamin C needs cofactors like rutin and bioflavonoids that are all naturally present in those powders, like acerola cherry. You can either take it supplementally as capsules or you add it onto your smoothies. You can literally put it in your water that you drink in your morning and it kind of sweetens the water. It sweetens the water but doesn't sugarize the water.

Kevin: Gotcha.

David: Vitamin C is sweet but not sugary. So it makes your morning water easier to drink. So that's one thing, vitamin C. The next thing is, what I believe to be, the greatest discovery in the last -- probably in the last hundred years in the field of nutrition other than vitamin C and enzymes and that is sulfur, MSM, Methylsulfonylmethane.

MSM is a biologically available form of sulfur that's naturally found in wild food, untended food. We don't really have access to that hardly at all any more. I mean, almost all our food is grown on farms for us. It's not being watered naturally by the rain. I'm talking about the natural sulfur that's produced in the oceans that helps create clouds, then drops them on the land that we need nutritionally in order to produce flexible collagen. Now that in the world does that mean? It means that sulfur produces flexible skin and flexible muscle tissue. It stops, in essence, wrinkling and increases the juiciness of the collagen and the discs, the joints that basically separate our bones from each other. On top of all that, it increases the growth of our hair, our nails, so that we have thicker, richer growth of our hair and nails. This can all be easily experienced within two weeks of taking MSM.

Kevin: It's going to grow like weeds.

David: It's really incredible and people who want thick quick growth of their hair and nails are almost always completely shocked by how powerful MSM can be. You can get it in capsule form. You can get it in a powder form. It's available in every single health food store now.

Once you start looking into it, and especially when you take it, here's what you're going to find out. You're going to find it's one of the most important things you've ever taken. I have randomly polled hundreds of people about MSM. I almost always to a T here from people who have taken it before. Oh, MSM changed my life. I've heard that dozens of times, that exact quote. Oh, MSM changed my life.

Kevin Gianni the host of Renegade Health Show - a fun and informative daily health show that is changing the perception of health across the world. His is an internationally known health advocate, author, and film consultant. He has helped thousands and thousands of people in over 21 countries though online health teleseminars about abundance, optimum health and longevity. He is also the creator and co-author of The Busy Person's Fitness Solution

David Wolfe's Eating for Beauty

David Wolfe's Eating for Beauty

I recently bought this at Whole Foods, and I'm now incorporating his supplement suggestions...

On some levels, taking supplements makes me crazy. I spend a ton of money, which is fine. The only thing more important than my intake would be something like a massage or spa treatment... Sometimes I'm so full from swallowing all the stuff that there's no room for anything else, which is not that fun all the time.

I'm completely grossed out by the taste of MSM, so I'm going to put less into my water. I think I nearly poisoned myself with it today. I felt so sick! He said that one teaspoon per liter ought to be okay. I'm going to try it tomorrow. I'm also wondering if I could just put a few tablespoons into a cup of water and just chug it.

Would it still work? still help with the absorption of all the food nutrients and supplements I taken within 12 hours? I'm also trying to figure out exactly how much to take. The label says to take 1/2 teaspoon 1-2 times per day whereas David Wolfe recommends 1-3 tablespoons twice a day. Sometimes I wonder if my body needs the maximum.

I found an amla berry powder that's blended with spirulina. He recommends 2-3 tablespoons of whole-food viatmin C powder per day whereas this label recommends 1/8-1 teaspoon per day. Does anybody know if spirulina stains porcelain veneers? Amla berry seems really potent.

I picked up some tocotrienols today. He recommends 1-2 tablespoons per day which I think I'll take. The label recommends 1 rounded teaspoon per day.

He recommends 1-3 capsules of silica from horsetail extract. The label recommends 1 500 mg capsule twice per day, which what I'm going to take.

He recommends goji berries. I've become a fan of blending them into smoothies or eating them by themselves. I'm down with goji berries.

He recommends 1-3 enzyme capsules per meal. The label recommends 1 per meal. If I took 2 more would I notice? benefit? feel better? have better digestion?

He recommends 1 probiotics capsule with each meal. The label recommends only 1 per day.

I haven't found chaparral leaves, blue mangosteen, or David Wolfe's supplements yet. I haven't even made it to his website to read his information! I've got to get over there! I'd like to meet him in person. He seems like a delight. I think I'd totally jive with him.

In addition to the suggestions in the book, I'm also currently taking the Natural Calm magnesium-calcium formula, which I really like! It's a tasty raspberry-lemon flavor. Dr. Norm Shealy was a huge advocate for magnesium taurate on his radio show... I'm taking chlorella because I feel that my body is so much more flexible when I have it in my system.

Of course I'm still taking the whole food blood builder. And I'm taking alfalfa leaf juice, wheat grass juice, barley grass juice, and blue green algae.

I need your help with his topical suggestions. I bought cacao butter for my face since it's supposed to be so good for the eye region. Do you know how to soften this? It's not like coconut oil, which melts as soon as you touch it. Have you found a stone-crushed olive oil? I haven't seen at the store. I guess I'll have to get it online. I want to get some MSM lotion, too.

David Wolfe Debunks Calcium

David Wolfe Debunks Calcium

Calcium does not build bones. This is one of the biggest misconceptions ever. This statement comes from one of the world's leading authorities on nutrition. He is David Wolfe and he is here to debunk some of our nutritional myths.

But first of all let us talk a little about David Wolfe. Who is David Wolfe? David Wolfe is the author of a lot of nutrition books namely Naked Chocolate, Amazing Grace, Eating for Beauty and the Sunfood Diet Success System.

Working with the sunfood organization they have been responsible in developing, marketing and distributing some of the world's most incredible and exotic organic food items. They are also the first to deliver raw organic superfoods such as Incan berries, cacao butter, cacao powder, goji berries, maca extract, powdered encapsulated mangosteen, cacao beans and cold-pressed coconut oil into North America.

David Wolfe, having a degree in political science, mechanical and environmental engineering, a juris in doctor in law and a masters in living-food nutrition is also part of Dr. Gabriel Cousen's masters of degree program on live-food nutrition. He hosts at leasts six fitness, health and adventure retreats each year at various retreats around the world. He has already given over 1,000 health lectures and seminars in Canada, Europe, the South Pacific, Central America, South America and the United States.

David Wolfe as of now is already completing several new books and on the side is also playing drums for the raw rock and roll band called The Healing Waters.

So with that background on David Wolfe let us now talk about his debunking of calcium. David Wolfe says that calcium does not build bones. When people do not have much bone density people think that they don't have calcium but this is not true. In fact even if we eat for example oyster shell calcium, we will only take in at best 1 or 2% of increase in our bone density. And we all know that 1 or 2 % is not enough.

For David Wolfe, what increase bone density is by taking in silicon and magnesium. The best source for magnesium would be cacao. Yes, cacao or raw chocolate. Chocolate is even good for your teeth because it kills the organism Streptococcus that cause cavities. It is sugar that is bad for our teeth not chocolate.

Then the best source for silicon would be cucumber skin, bell peppers skin and skin of tomatoes. Silicon can also be found in certain special herbs like horse tail, nettle, alfalfa and oat straw.

So if you want to have bone density. Stop taking calcium. Start taking in magnesium and silicon. Hope this new information has helped you change your outlook in foods because there is till more new updates on science, food and nutrition that still needs to be discovered.

Help spread the world and start living healthy. Good luck!


長跑知識 崩潰點

長跑知識 崩潰點 一套關於 [ 崩潰點 ] 的理論. 簡單來說, 運動員在跑了一段路程之後, 體力透支, 就會突然慢下來, 甚至完全沒有意志再跑, 這就是 [ 崩潰點 ] 了. 在馬拉松比賽中, [ 崩潰點 ] 亦被稱為 [ 牆 ], 很多跑手撞 [ 牆 ] 時就會上岸, 若能支援下去, 速度亦會每公里慢三、四分鐘. [ 崩潰點 ] 來得很突然, 和普通疲倦不同. [ 崩潰點 ] 全是由每週所練的裏數決定. 將過去兩個月的裏數總和除六十, 就可以求出每日的平均裏數. 將這個平均數乘三就是 [崩潰點 ]. 在我們的訓練計劃中, C跑手在過去兩個月跑了976公里, 即是平均每日跑16公里, [ 崩潰點 ] 就在48公里, 足夠應付42 . 0195 公里的馬拉松. 測測你的崩潰點吧?



家中有人過身,要注意甚麼,辦喪禮,確是一門學問,應做甚麼,不應做甚麼;應想甚麼,不應想甚麼。 如何辦身後事。


如不想死者解剖,可以去死因研究庭同法官講,但一般情況下不會接納。 醫院會第二天將遺體移至殮房,第二天要再到殮房認屍,因為怕掉轉(事實確曾發生過)。 將手提電話上所有電話抄起 這點是很重要的,因為死者的電話,有著他/她所有親友或朋友的電話號碼,將來會很有用處。 收到電話之後,要馬上將電話裏的留言聽完,因為留言過數天就會消失,而且也可能得到更多的親友聯絡。

通知親友,朋友 有人會不想太多朋友傷心而不通知,其實不然,越通知得多越好。因為這是朋友可以為死者做的最後一件事,就是做帛金及前來悼念,參加喪禮;如不說,可能過後知道,一生都不安樂。 一家人馬上開緊急會議商量


一定要搵 Agent 這個是最重要的小秘技,無論自己怎樣知道事情都好,每事,尤其是大事都一定要問過 agent。有些人不以為然,其實我覺得佢係傻仔。好簡單,買五色果,如叫 Agent 買一定無交嘈。

但如自己以為很簡單,買到個爛蘋果,那長輩會怨一世。 Agent 最重要的作用,是有甚麼事情發生,都可以將責任推落 agent 身上。


價錢分多方面,很複雜,總會有意料不到的錢會突然出現,大致上可以分為數類: 靈堂 價錢不定,由數千元至數萬元不等。 棺木 價錢不定,但一般來說一萬元以上為合,如一萬元以下,棺木不會太靚。 雜費 包括很多東西,例如當天司儀,和尚念經,吉儀,名冊,靈堂佈置,很多雜費,也是豐儉由人,可以去到數萬,甚至乎十萬也有。


道教儀式則要道士,也是要人工的。 應紅讌 去那裏都可以,但最好有口碑。因為應紅讌有規有舉,絕不是去茶樓,叫下小菜就算。例如要八道菜有鮮色東西,這些未必間間酒樓都知,不要自作聰明,自己發辦。 應紅讌價錢不定,但起碼也要千三元,要有預算。

利是 很多利是要派,和尚要利是,引領師要利是,司儀要利是,跟和尚的第子要利是,應紅讌又要每人派利是。 豐儉由人,這裏給你作參巧。和尚引領師每人每天一百,和尚第子每人二十,應紅讌每人十元,司儀兩百。 找 Agent 最好找相熟,不然價錢可以爭好遠。你不會看得出一副四萬銀的棺木同十萬銀棺木的分別。

基督教或天主教會簡單一點,慳番和尚念經的費用。但要死者已受洗才可以,否則神父不會接你生意。我有客人試過夾硬來,有成功的例子,但要有相熟教會。 預備相片及陪葬品 相片一定要有底片,不要想著用 photoshop 執個全體相的小頭放大,一來隔離個人雙手會阻主夾硬 cut,二來放大樣貌會化開。


火葬場 火葬如基督教,有制按,一按,棺木會進去,然後半程有閉路電視,親友可以看,是一個喊位;而佛教或道教未必有制按,棺木可能只是從門旁推進去就算。 如在柴灣哥連臣角火化,上山入柴灣,落山去到筲箕灣,所以酒樓唔好搵柴灣,很多人都不知道的。因為火化場是單程路,如應紅讌設在柴灣會兜路,費時失事。

墓地 豐儉由人,後人自己慢慢搵,不過建議儘快攪掂,免得延長傷心過程。 應有最親的拿主意,外人只能關懷問候,問有甚麼可以幫手,切忌加插意見;在這個時候,外人說甚麼,當事人都會覺得另有企圖;尤其是儀式價錢,應由當事人直系親屬決定一切,因為外人話:"唔得,咁平!" 又或者 "唔得,咁貴" 都會另到直系親屬另有想法,這些是最基本禮儀,

一定要切記;如直系親屬邀請,可以一起商量,但只能附和,價錢一概不談。 -- 如有兄弟姊妹,某個人不能即時趕來做後事(例如不在香港),我只能說,這個人已經喪失了拿主意的權利。其他兄弟姊妹商議好的事情,只能同意,否則所有細節決定好,又自己有意見,只會令事情複雜及傷感情。

死者如有遺產而沒有遺囑的話,切忌在商量喪事之時商量如何分配。提議商量那個人,只會被人掟出街。 -- 喪事可以考慮用帛金抵消,也可以考慮全數給長輩,一定要在事前說得清清楚楚,但切忌用 email 叫家人 confirm。我聽過有個客人個細佬就係咁,結果成個家散哂反面。

晚輩分擔方面,如人數多,可以不用平分,這可以用兩個角度去考量: 1. 經濟好的可以做大份,但如當事人不願意,不能勉強,因為這是心意。 2. 關係特別好的可以做大份,但如當事人不願意,也不能勉強;人情冷暖,也即時看得到,馬上解碼。

做帛金要以 1 為尾數,例如 101, 1,001, 10,001 等,帛金公價每人為 101,提議,絕不要做 101,隨非你真係未見過死者又或者不太熟。最好是 301,去喪禮則做 501,有關係或好朋友則隨意,如 501 再上,不要做 801,要做 1,001。

想慳錢,四個人做 1,001 也可以,都算好睇。 龍師傅強調一句,人熟禮不熟。參加任何婚禮,喪禮,滿月酒等,做多好過做少。你做公價,別人不會記得;但你做高價,別人可能會記你一世。

例如老闆結婚,你不到,公價人情是 300。你不如做夠 1,000,咁你升職一定有望,老闆想忘記你都好難。

有些人以為自己好聰明,做公價就算,其實不然,多三幾百,你一生既運氣,我肯定一定會改變好多好多。 又例如親人,公價 101,親人有事也是做 101,馬上又可以解碼,其實朋友,親人的性格及運氣如何,在紅事白事的人情可以看得到。

有人來,不要說多謝,要說有心。 -- 花牌可以不用立刻做,隨非有相熟鮮花公司。一來去到在樓下才做感覺穩陣,轉頭送上去,二來提防自己寫錯名,去到可以再確認一次。 花牌價錢為三百五至六百元




來源: 沃頓知識在線  

由減肥權威羅伯特·阿特金斯(Robert Atkins)創立的阿特金斯營養品公司(Atkins Nutritionals)於七月宣告破產,這標誌著瘋狂追捧低碳水化合物時代的終結。



由減肥權威羅伯特·阿特金斯(Robert Atkins)創立的阿特金斯營養品公司(Atkins Nutritionals)於七月宣告破產。有觀察人士雲:這標誌著瘋狂追捧低碳水化合物時代的終結。這種低碳食品曾經在食品市場上所向披靡。在2003年至2004年的巔峰時期,大約有3000萬美國人嘗試阿特金斯減肥法;美國食品市場協會所做的調查顯示,20%的顧客開始有意購買低碳食品;而食品生產商僅在2003年就推出3000多種新型低碳食品。

與其他任何流行產品(虛擬寵物、“豆寶寶”毛絨玩具)的命運一樣,消費者對待阿特金斯減肥法先是瘋狂追捧,隨後熱情驟減,而這早就在人們的預料之中。曼哈頓EPM通訊公司總裁伊拉·梅耶(Ira Meyer)說,“上個世紀以來,這個國家各種流行風潮的生命周期都有章可循。”梅耶還出版了EPM關於流行風潮的各種研究報告。這些報告對從1880年(吉布森女郎)到1998年(虛擬寵物)期間流行的100種產品進行了調查分析。他們的研究指出了流行風潮發展的四個特性: 典型或“真正”的流行風潮,信奉人數急劇增加,隨後在18個月中驟減,譬如瑪卡琳娜舞曲(Macarena); 周期性的流行風潮,每六七年發作一次,但追隨者的人數日益減少,譬如呼拉圈和溜溜球; 時代型風潮,出現周期大約是15年,譬如喇叭褲; 由流行風潮發展為連鎖產品,在最初風靡之後呈現出持續性、波浪性的發展模式,譬如彈簧玩具和米奇老鼠。

梅耶認為,減肥產品通常都是由流行風潮發展成為連鎖產品。這種產品最初都只是流行風潮,命運也是大起大落,但在其後的歲月中總會卷土重來,而不是通通消失不見。羅伯特·阿特金斯創造的減肥方法正是如此。阿特金斯是心血管疾病專家,他在戰勝了自己的肥胖問題後發明了低碳水化合物減肥法。在1972至1992的20年間,他總共出版了15本著作,滿足了美國人對“神奇”減肥配方永無止境的追求。雖然這些年他的減肥理論時而受歡迎,時而被冷落,但在有些人看來,其最後一本著作《阿特金斯博士的新減肥革命》(Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution)卻永遠改變了人們的飲食習慣。

1989年,他創建了阿特金斯營養品公司,為其追隨者生產低碳水化合物食品。 正如許多流行風潮一樣,阿特金斯在品嘗了巨大的勝利後迅速遭遇了嚴重的挫敗。丹·納格爾(Dan Nagle)說,“以往的食品銷售經驗告訴我們,流行食品的發展總是虎頭蛇尾,壽命不長。”他引用了上世紀八十年代對燕麥麩(許諾可以降低膽固醇)的狂熱追捧為例。納格爾是費城納格爾-凱勒公司(Nagle-Kyle Associates)的合夥人,主要為消費性商品企業提供咨詢。


鑒於阿特金斯減肥方法的受歡迎程度,其同名公司又怎會流落到破產的境地呢?梅耶指出,“對於任何流行風尚而言,主宰其命運盛衰的都不是某個單一的因素,而是在特定時刻各種因素的綜合作用所致,正是這點使得流行風尚的命運難以預測。” 這些因素包括市場飽和度、爭議、競爭以及不斷變化的時代和品味。 驅動銷售的因素 是什麽原因促使產品風靡一時或者迅速夭亡?

譬如某種式樣的藍色牛仔褲或者新鞋式樣?沃頓商學院的運營與信息管理教授兼供應鏈管理專家馬歇爾·費希爾(Marshall Fisher)認為,流行風尚不僅通常“只在很短的時間內大行其道”,而且“對於它們為什麽逐漸受冷落或開始流行也沒有合理的解釋。就邏輯而言,消費者的需求變化也沒有如此之快。” 費希爾根據與“供貨周期”(譬如,公司需要多長的時間補充新貨)相關的產品壽命將短命產品分為三類。第一類是在亞洲采購的產品,這類產品只能采購一次。傳統做法是在產品最熱銷的時候買進,然後利用價格控制市場供求。多數紡織品(譬如Gap和The Limited等品牌)都采用這種方式進貨。


第二類產品與第一類正好相反,其壽命從六個月到兩年左右不等。補貨對於這類商品很重要。費希爾認為,“這種模式相對比較容易操作,因為可以借鑒過去的各種銷售狀況。”第三類產品的壽命在三到六個月之間,“對於這類產品,你可以補貨一到兩次。” 費希爾認為,對於零售商而言,最艱難的日子莫過於產品剛剛發布之後。“那時你有了一些銷售經驗,但還不多。只看以前的銷售狀況是不夠的。你還要考慮當時的銷售環境。譬如,產品進駐了多少家店鋪;當時是銷售旺季還是淡季;當時的產品定價以及後來的定價;產品在市場上的供應狀況如何;當時的競爭程度如何;在銷售周期的早期階段,你需要把握的銷售動因很多。”許多公司對早期的銷售狀況都存在誤解。他們以為產品賣得很火,其實銷量上升只是因為銷售旺季的來臨或者產品進駐的店鋪越來越多。”

費希爾表示自己並不十分清楚流行與時尚之間的差別,但他指出,非流行商品的特征之一是它們是每年都上市銷售的,譬如紡織品和鞋。“商店會有今年的服裝或者鞋的版本……流行式樣也可以預測。打個比方說,最暢銷的商品會比一般的好賣X倍。而且你知道今年肯定會有流行的顏色,只是不知流行什麽顏色而已。”流行卻正好相反,通常是極為不同的產品概念。“它的變化是如此顯著,所以歷史銷售情況也沒有太大的指導意義。” 費希爾補充說,對於阿特金斯營養品公司而言,了解其他流行風尚的生命周期或許有所裨益:包括銷量增加的速度多塊?持續的時間多長?銷量何時開始下降?競爭對手是何人?“倘若如此,或許從中可以窺見公司末日的來臨。”


在分析阿特金斯現象的過程中,沃頓營銷學教授巴巴拉·卡恩(Barbara Kahn)仔細闡述了阿特金斯減肥法和流行減肥食品的區別。前者最初並沒有專指某種產品,而流行食品都是通過節食減肥。卡恩認為,阿特金斯減肥法的末日來臨最主要、也是最可預見的理由是,消費者對結果感到失望。

“大家滿心期盼這種減肥方法能起作用。但不幸的是,起初體重迅速減輕可能讓你欣喜若狂,可接下來希望就會無情破滅,因為如果不能堅持,體重會立刻反彈。” 與此同時,阿特金斯產品沒有提供足夠的價值,以維持企業的持續發展。卡恩指出,“阿特金斯根本不具備差異優勢,尤其是當主流品牌開始推出自己產品的低卡版本之後(而且價格比阿特金斯低得多)。” 但唐·蒙托裏(Don Montuori)認為,阿特金斯對於推行低碳食品的流行功不可沒。

蒙托裏是Packaged Facts的編輯,該紐約出版商出版關於消費食品的市場調研報告。AC尼爾森(A.C.Nielsen)的數據顯示,超過80%的購物者表示會仔細查看產品的營養成分,其中40%會特別留意該產品是否是低碳水化合物。 卡恩對此觀點表示贊同。她說,某些流行食品確實“有自己的特色,能夠適應消費者的口味,然後廣為流傳,”他還引用淡啤酒和低脂牛奶為例。“消費者很喜歡嘗試各種各樣的食品,即使為此犧牲口味也在所不惜。但隨著時間的推移,倘若新產品無法提供他們想要的價值,他們就不再願意犧牲自己的偏好了。” 正如蒙托裏所言:“任何減肥方法都無法長盛不衰;美國消費者已經非常習慣得到他們想要的任何東西,這是他們的本性使然。在選擇食品時,他們也不會放棄這種本性。

但他又說,阿特金斯減肥法的影響力不會消失。“我想它現在、將來都會對消費者產生影響,他們認為吃高碳水化合物食品應該受到譴責,並重新計算正常飲食中的碳水化合物含量。” 我們仍然肥胖 沃頓商學院的營銷學教授斯蒂芬·霍克(Stephen Hoch)說,消費者選擇健康飲食非常艱難,至少美國消費者是如此。“許多媒體都在大力宣傳健康飲食,但看看美國農業部的數據,你會驚訝人們的食品偏好竟然改變得如此緩慢。” 霍克舉例說明,盡管大家都說要多吃魚,但與1970年相比,2000年消費者的年平均魚攝入量只增加了兩磅,也就是說,由13磅增加到15磅,而紅肉攝入量僅從130磅跌至118磅。禽肉和土豆消耗量顯著增加,其罪魁禍首就是快餐店供應的炸薯條和雞肉三明治。

霍克說,“媒體需要新鮮的素材,所以他們總是對任何變化大肆報道,似乎這些變化已成為主流,而事實上,這些飲食習慣的改變非常微不足道。現在大家都對健康的生活方式津津樂道,喜歡閱讀產品商標等等。但倘若事實果真如此,為何現在肥胖還屢見不鮮呢?” 梅耶與霍克看法一致,他說:“大家都說要吃得更健康,而且也更經常地閱讀產品標簽,但卻總是做不到言行一致。道理很簡單:美國民眾不願犧牲口味換取健康(至少無法持之以恒)。” 納格補充道:“我們知道,在食品行業裏,從人們喜歡的食品中抽掉某些基本元素,或者竄改食品的味道都是錯誤的做法。” 有鑒於此,為何商家自己還會屈從於流行風潮?自然每家公司都期盼今年的流行會演變成明年長盛不衰的潮流。但納格說,“當你站在沙灘上時,你很難辨認奔湧的是波浪還是海嘯。” 霍克認為,如果要與競爭對手媲美,企業幾乎就毫無選擇。“流行產品銷量上升就是廠家開始賺錢的時候,人人都希望自己能擠進去,趁著銷量紅火的時候賺些錢。”

當然這對產品種類齊全的大型公司比較有利。“譬如卡夫食品(Kraft)和寶潔(P&G)就可以接連不斷地推出新產品;他們的產品種類非常豐富,即使某種產品出現虧損也不會釀成大問題。梅耶說,“想生產流行產品的公司唯一可做的就是密切關註產品,一旦流行力度開始減弱就立刻抽身推出。”但“即使隱約覺得流行勢頭不再強勁,要想迅速撤退避免虧損也很難做到。” 霍克指出,及時放棄流行產品“確實更像是一門藝術,而非科學。”對於阿特金斯這樣的公司而言問題更加嚴重,因為它是“只會耍一套把戲的小馬駒”。所以當阿特金斯全面收縮低碳產品線,專攻減肥冰淇淋和薯條時,他說,“阿特金斯今後的命運如何很難說,因為它現在的產品比過去更為單一。”



Arm Exercises for Women Bat Wings or Batwings

Arm Exercises for Women Bat Wings or Batwings
Get Rid Of Bat Wings by doing Kettlebell workouts and working out with weights.

Besides, it can be greatly improved by reducing your body fat through diet and cardiovascular exercises and a solid weight training program that features heavier compound movements.

Seated tricep dips, push-ups, bench presses with respectable weight, even some power yoga-type of poses. In general, heavy pushing movements will greatly help, plus you get stronger in the process.

Women who lose weight may develop something known as batwings on the under arm. These flabby patches of skin that do not seem to stop moving when your arm does. There are arm exercises for women that are specially designed to help solve this problem.

Whether you are a novice or someone who has been working out for some time now, the following tips can help you increase muscle in your arms, decrease the excess skin, and just get an overall improvement in strength. You can even include some maneuvers to decrease unsightly belly fat.

Everyone is familiar with Pilates and the exercises using giant blow up balls, but not everyone knows the purpose of them. When you work out with a Pilate ball you are using every muscle you can think of because you are constantly trying to stabilize yourself. Your workouts will be increased in difficulty but well worth the effort.

The first thing you are going to need is a stabilization ball and some free weights or dumbbells that weight 3 to 5 pounds. Make sure you have one for each hand.

With dumbbells in hand sit on the stabilization ball, and once you are settled and secure begin the routine by following these steps:

• Begin the exercise with your upper arms running parallel to the floor. Your lower arms should be perpendicular while the dumbbells are in your hand.

• When you are ready, begin by lifting your upper arms to a position over your head. You will need to be tightening your abs to maintain your balance on the ball. When your arms are overhead make sure that your palms are facing each other while you hold the dumbbells.

• From this position, lower the dumbbells behind your head slowly, bending your elbows so that they are pointing toward the ceiling. Doing this slowly is key as if you go too fast you can hurt yourself and you will also not get a workout.

• With your palms facing each other, slowly lift the dumbbells over your head. Try to get up to doing 10 to 12 repetitions three times. You will find your biceps burn. This proves you are working your muscles. Once the difficulty has lessened advance to heavier weights.

These arm exercises are not hard to do and will get your "batwings" under control finally. If you want to start out slower begin with using just the weights, avoiding using the exercise ball. If this is still too much for you to handle then use less weight.

Once you are ready, you can increase weight, add the exercise ball and increase your repetitions and sets. Keep in mind, however, that with less weight and not using the exercise ball the exercise will be dramatically easier and you will not see results as quickly.

Whatever your needs, be it under arm flab or just wanting to get more strength and tone, these arm exercises for women can help you achieve that goal.

Fitness Equipment


馬會開錯盤 賭客「及時執死雞」 小保加對AC賠率對調 買齊必贏

馬會開錯盤 賭客「及時執死雞」 小保加對AC賠率對調 買齊必贏
(明報)2009年7月31日 星期五

【明報專訊】馬會發生疑是近年最嚴重的「開錯盤」事故,馬會證實由於人手輸入出錯,令「小保加 對AC米蘭 」賽事的「讓球主客和」主客賠率昨一度調轉。雖然該錯誤10分鐘內已被修正,但本報得悉,有投注者「及時」在雙方投注各4萬元,無論賽事結果為何,都大約會贏2000元至7.2萬元不等。

人手輸入出錯 承諾檢討


今次已非馬會首次開錯盤,民政事務局 回應說,關注馬會有否採取措施避免開錯盤,會跟進了解事件。






馬會稱數分鐘內修正 按例照賠



明報記者 陳志偉

馬會拒補回賠率差價 買錯讓球 隨時少賺

馬會拒補回賠率差價 買錯讓球 隨時少賺
(明報)2009年7月31日 星期五

【明報專訊】馬會開錯盤,投注者有得有失。因「聰明」的球迷可分析賠率兩邊均下注造成必贏局面,但另一方面,若有顧客不慎誤買了「讓1球」的AC米蘭 勝,有可能「贏少咗」即蒙受損失,因此時AC米蘭勝出的讓球賠率錯列為1.65倍,遠低於原本應有的3.8倍。

馬會昨回應時堅持,賭客接受賠率才下注,故不會考慮補回賠率差價。但博彩及獎券事務委員會委員何漢權認為,既然賠率出錯是因馬會職員犯錯引起,馬會便應向下注者賠償賠率差價,否則便不公平。民政事務局 指出,政府沒有收過有關馬會足球博彩有限公司「開錯盤」的投訴;但若有投注者對開錯盤不滿,可向博獎會投訴。

馬會開辦賭波以來,以「走地盤」賠率出錯的問題,較受球迷關注。就像約10天前國際米蘭 對阿美利加的賽事中,在阿美利加率先入球後,馬會開出的阿美利加得勝賠率一度仍維持在5.1倍,未有下調,即被網友質疑馬會出錯「益了下注者」。但由於最後兩隊賽和,故馬會未有實際損失。


HP - Photosmart Multifunction Printer/ Copier/ Scanner

HP - Photosmart Multifunction Printer/ Copier/ Scanner
Model: C4680 | SKU: 9317456


This multifunction printer allows you to print, copy and scan with ease whether at home or in the office. Built-in media slots allow you to print photos and documents.
What's Included

* HP Photosmart Multifunction Printer/ Copier/ Scanner
* 1 black ink cartridge, 1 tricolor ink cartridge
* Owner's manual

Product Features

* 3-in-1 functionality
Prints, copies and scans for convenient operations.
* Fast print speeds up to 29 ppm* in black, up to 23 ppm* in color
To generate documents quickly.
* Up to 4800 x 1200 optimized dpi resolution in black
As well as up to 4800 x 1200 optimized dpi in color for stunning print jobs.
* Multiple print sizes
From 3" x 5" to 8.5" x 30" for flexible print control.
* Built-in card slots
Support Secure Digital, MultiMediaCard, Memory Stick Duo and xD-Picture Card formats.
* Copies up to 9 cpm* in black, up to 6.5 cpm* in color
To generate copies quickly.
* Copy resolution up to 1200 x 1200 in black
As well as up to 1200 x 1200 optimized dpi in color for rich images.
* Flatbed scanner with 48-bit color
Plus a scan resolution up to 1200 dpi optical and up to 1200 x 2400 dpi hardware to reproduce images and documents.
* Prints on a variety of paper
Including plain, photo, envelopes, labels, card stock and transparencies to meet your printing needs.
* 80-sheet input tray
With a 15-sheet output tray to organize your printing.
* High-speed USB connectivity
To quickly interface with your computer.
* *Note: Print speeds vary with use. See mfg. for info on print speeds.

Sony - Cyber-shot 12.1-Megapixel Digital Camera - Blue

Sony - Cyber-shot 12.1-Megapixel Digital Camera - Blue
Model: DSC-W230/L | SKU: 9256663


Easily capture special moments with family and friends using this digital camera that features face detection technology and a SteadyShot optical image stabilization for clear, detailed images.
What's Included

* Sony Cyber-shot 12.1-Megapixel Digital Camera
* Lithium-ion battery
* Picture Motion Browser 4.2 software
* Owner's manual

Product Features

* From our expanded online assortment; not available in all Best Buy stores
* 12.1-megapixel CCD
Captures high-resolution images. 1/2.3" Super HAD CCD with BIONZ imaging processor delivers detailed images with low noise and high contrast.
* Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar lens with 4x optical zoom/up to 25x digital zoom
Lets you capture sharp, highly detailed long shots. Sony Smart Zoom technology crops into the central portion of interest in your photo, avoiding image degradation.
* 3" Clear Photo LCD screen
For excellent visibility even in bright sunlight.
* SteadyShot optical image stabilization and high sensitivity (ISO 3200)
Minimize blur due to hand shake, low light conditions or times when flash is not possible.
* Dynamic Range Optimization
Preserves image data in bright highlights and reveals more detail in shadows or backlit areas for great results even in difficult lighting conditions.
* Face detection technology
Tracks faces within the frame and automatically focuses and optimizes exposure. Smile Shutter mode allows you to shoot automatically when your subject laughs, smiles or grins.
* Intelligent scene recognition
Automatically recognizes 5 different types of scene conditions and selects the appropriate camera settings.
* Scene modes
Include auto, easy, program auto, high sensitivity, twilight, twilight portrait, soft snap, landscape, beach, snow, fireworks, underwater and gourmet.
* Burst mode
Lets you take up to 100 shots at 1.8 fps so you can capture the best possible image.
* 9-area multipoint autofocus
Evaluates your shot at 9 points for great results, even with off-center subjects. Center and spot auto focus also included for sharper images.
* White balance modes
Including auto, daylight, cloudy, incandescent, flash and 3 fluorescent options achieve natural tones under different lighting conditions.
* Flash modes
Include auto, flash-off and slow synchro for great images no matter what the lighting.
* Color modes
Include vivid, sepia, normal and black-and-white.
* Capture high-quality video clips
MPEG VX fine with audio (640 x 480 at 30 fps), MPEG VX standard with audio (640 x 480 at 16 fps) or presentation (320 x 240 at 8.3 fps).
* 15MB internal memory
Supports Memory Stick Duo and Memory Stick PRO Duo cards (not included).
* >> Store more photos! Find compatible memory cards in our Memory Center!
Let you display high-definition photos and create an HD slideshow with music when connected to your compatible high-definition TV (requires cable, not included).
* PictBridge compatible
Connect your camera to a compatible printer and print photos directly without using a PC.
* Easy shooting mode
Limits the number of settings for beginners or users who want to keep things simple.
* Stamina battery power
Provides extended battery life and shooting capacity when using a fully charged lithium-ion battery (included).

Motorola - 14-Mile, 22-Channel 2-Way Radios with Backlit Display (Pair) - Blue

Motorola - 14-Mile, 22-Channel 2-Way Radios with Backlit Display (Pair) - Blue
Model: SX600R | SKU: 9170078


Stay in touch with your group when camping with these 2-way radios that feature a range up to 14 miles. A convenient backlit display lets you use the radios at night.
What's Included

* Motorola 14-Mile, 22-Channel 2-Way Radios with Backlit Display (Pair)
* Dual charger, charging adapter
* 2 battery packs
* 2 belt clips
* Owner's manual

Product Features

* From our expanded online assortment; not available in all Best Buy stores
* Up to a 14-mile range
Enables you to keep an open line of communication with your party.
* 22 channels
Offer a wide variety of signals to choose from.
* iVOX
For operating the radios hands-free without the use of a headset.
* 10 call tones
Let you differentiate between members of your party.
* Audible low battery alert
So you know when they radios need to be recharged.
* Backlit display
Lets you operate the radios in the dark.

Kalorik - Sunny Morning 2-Slice Wide Toaster - White/Tangerine

Kalorik - Sunny Morning 2-Slice Wide Toaster - White/Tangerine
Model: TO25908T | SKU: 9373705


Brown and toast bread, bagels and more with this 2-slice toaster that features 7° of browning control for precise toasting. A slide-out crumb tray ensures quick and easy cleanup.
What's Included

* Kalorik Sunny Morning 2-Slice Wide Toaster
* 2 matching table mats
* Striped bread basket
* Owner's manual

Product Features

* From our expanded online assortment; not available in all Best Buy stores
* 3 functions
Include reheat, defrost and cancel buttons.
* 7° of browning control
For precise, accurate toasting according to your preferences.
* 700W power
Provides efficient toaster operation.
* 2 wide slots
For toasting multiple pieces at once.
* Cool touch exterior
Protects against would-be burns.
* Slide-out crumb tray
For quick and easy cleanup after toasting.
* Auto pop-up and high-lift lever
Make it easy to get toasted foods out of the toaster.
* Automatic shutoff
Turns the toaster off if you forget to for added safety.
* Cord storage
Tucks the cord away for a clutter-free toasting area.